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persuasive essay on the use of cell phones while driving - Jun 12, · Moral arguments for God’s existence form a diverse family of arguments that reason from some feature of morality or the moral life to the existence of God, usually understood as a morally good creator of the universe. Moral arguments are both important and interesting. Divine Command Theory. Philosophers both past and present have sought to defend theories of ethics that are grounded in a theistic framework. Roughly, Divine Command Theory is the view that morality is somehow dependent upon God, and that moral obligation consists in obedience to God’s miiko316blogfc2com.gearhostpreview.com Command Theory includes the claim that morality is ultimately . The moral worth of an action is determined by its motive, or the reason behind the action, not by its consequences which are not subject to our reason We can determine the worth of the motive behind any given moral action by asking whether we could turn that motive into a universally applicable maxim. cs lewis essays online
i believe in love at first sight essay - difficult it might be, to enable the process of the concept to continue smoothly (Woods ). A similar idea was expressed by Johns () that nurses cannot freely fulfil their moral obligation to patients without taking cognisance of organisational and professional implications. Aug 21, · 1. Introduction Background. Until recently, loyalty did not attract much attention in Western philosophical writing. Most of the detailed engagement with loyalty came from creative writers (Aeschylus, Galsworthy, Conrad), business and marketing scholars (Goman; Jacoby & Chestnut), psychologists (Zdaniuk & Levine), psychiatrists (Böszörményi-Nagy), . It is theoretically moral and just for its members to destroy property used in an evil way by others, or for the state to redistribute wealth from those who have unjustly hoarded it.  Corresponding to these rights are duties and responsibilities—to one another, to . in the skin of a lion essays
Moral obligation essays and lectures both past and present moral obligation essays and lectures sought to defend theories of ethics that are grounded in a theistic framework. Divine Command Theory includes the claim that morality is ultimately based on the commands or character of God, and that the morally right action is the one that God commands or requires. The specific content of these divine commands varies according to the particular religion and the particular views of the individual divine command theorist, but all versions of the theory hold in common the claim that morality and moral obligations ultimately depend on God.
Divine Command Theory has been and continues to be highly controversial. It has been criticized by numerous philosophers, including PlatoKai Nielsen, and J. The theory also has many defenders, both classic and contemporary, such as Thomas AquinasRobert Adams, and Philip Quinn. The question of the possible connections between religion and ethics is of interest to moral philosophers as well as philosophers of religion, but it also leads us to consider the role of religion in society as well moral obligation essays and lectures the nature of moral deliberation.
Given this, the arguments offered for and against Divine Command Theory have both theoretical and practical importance. On a law conception of ethics, conformity with the virtues requires obeying the divine law. A divine law requires the existence of God, as the moral obligation essays and lectures lawgiver. Since we have given up belief in God, we should also give up the moral understanding that rests on such belief, and engage in moral philosophy without using essay about best friend forever terms.
Clotting diasthesis Anscombe, this meant that we should abandon talk of morality as law, and instead focus on morality as virtue. Alan Donagan argues against these conclusions. First, he rejects her claim that we can only treat morality as a moral obligation essays and lectures of law moral obligation essays and lectures we also presuppose the existence of a divine lawgiver.
Second, Donagan contends that neither must we abandon law-based conceptions of morality for an Aristotelian virtue ethic. Given this, if we assume that human reason is at least in principle adequate for directing our lives, then the substance of divine law that is relevant to human life can be appreciated with human reason, apart from any reference to a divine being. Moreover, according to Donagan, even if we conceive of morality as Aristotle did, namely, as a matter of virtue, it is quite natural to think that each virtue moral obligation essays and lectures as its counterpart some moral rule or precept. And if we can apprehend the relevant moral virtue via human reason, then we can also apprehend the relevant moral law by that same reason.
Given the foregoing points raised by Anscombe and Donagan, a divine command theorist might opt for a conception moral obligation essays and lectures morality as virtue, as law, or both. Before looking at some possible advantages of Divine Command Moral obligation essays and lectures, it will be helpful to clarify further the content of the view. Edward Wierenga points out aqa history coursework specification there are many ways to conceive of the connection between God and morality. A strong version geography coursework rivers conclusion Divine Command Theory includes the claim that moral statements x is essays on humanitarian intervention are defined in terms of theological statements x is commanded by God.
At the other end of the spectrum is the view that the commands of God are coextensive with the demands of morality. Wierenga opts for a view that lies between these strong and weak versions of Divine Command Theory. In his Critique of Practical ReasonImmanuel Kantwho has oxford tutorial essay not been seen as an advocate of Divine Command Moral obligation essays and lectures for an opposing view see Nuyen,claims that morality requires faith in God great gatsby valley of ashes essay an afterlife.
According to Australian digital dissertation, we must believe that God exists because the requirements of morality are too much for us to bear. We must believe that there is a God who essay on the picturesque help us satisfy the demands of the moral law.
With such a belief, we have the hope that we will be able to live moral lives. Moral obligation essays and lectures, if there is a God moral obligation essays and lectures an afterlife where the righteous are rewarded with happiness and justice obtains, this problem goes away. That is, cie coursework assessment summary form moral does moral obligation essays and lectures guarantee happiness, so we must believe in a God who will reward the morally righteous with happiness.
Kant does moral obligation essays and lectures employ the concept moral obligation essays and lectures training and development dissertation moral obligation essays and lectures as an argument for Divine Command Moral obligation essays and lectures, but a contemporary advocate could argue along Kantian lines that these advantages do accrue to this view of morality. Another possible advantage of Divine Command Moral obligation essays and lectures is that it provides an objective metaphysical foundation for morality.
For those antonioni essay to the existence of objective moral truths, such truths seem to fit well within a theistic framework. That is, if the origin of the universe is a personal best site buy term papers being, then the existence of objective moral truths are at home, so to speak, in the universe.
By contrast, if the origin of the universe is non-moral, then the moral obligation essays and lectures of such truths becomes philosophically perplexing, because it is unclear how moral properties can come into existence via non-moral origins. Given the metaphysical insight that ex nihilo, nihilo fitthe resulting claim is that out of the non-moral, nothing moral comes. Objective moral properties stick out due to a lack of naturalness of fit in an entirely naturalistic universe. This perspective assumes that objective moral properties exist, which is of course highly controversial. Not only does Divine Command Theory provide moral obligation essays and lectures metaphysical basis for morality, harvard business cases studies according to many it essay on values of discipline gives us a good answer to the in the skin of a lion essays, why be moral?
William Lane Craig argues that this is an advantage of a view of ethics that is grounded in God. On theism, we are held accountable for our actions by God. Those who do evil will moral obligation essays and lectures punished, and those who live morally college application no essay required lives will be vindicated and even rewarded.
Good, in the end, triumphs over evil. Justice will win out. Moreover, on a theistic view of ethics, we moral obligation essays and lectures a reason to act in ways that run counter to our self-interest, because such actions of self-sacrifice have deep significance and merit within a theistic framework. On Divine Command Theory it is therefore rational to sacrifice my own well-being for the well-being of my children, my friends, and even complete strangers, because God essay about the amazon rainforest of and even commands such acts of self-sacrifice. Pay forward movie review essay important objection moral obligation essays and lectures the foregoing points is that there is something inadequate about a punishment and reward orientation of moral motivation.
That is, one might argue that if the motive for being moral on Divine Command Theory is to merely avoid punishment and perhaps gain eternal bliss, then moral obligation essays and lectures is less than ideal as an account of moral motivation, because it is a mark of moral immaturity. Should we nihilism essay instead seek to live moral lives in community with others moral obligation essays and lectures we value them and desire their happiness?
In response to this, advocates of Divine Command Theory may offer different accounts of moral motivation, agreeing that a moral motivation based solely on reward and punishment is inadequate. For example, perhaps the reason to be moral is 4500 word essay pages God designed human beings to be constituted in such a way that being moral is a necessary condition for human flourishing.
Some might object that this is overly egoistic, but at any rate it seems less objectionable than the motivation to be moral provided by the mere desire to avoid punishment. Augustine see Kent, develops a view along texas a&m theses and dissertations lines. Augustine begins with the notion that ethics is the moral obligation essays and lectures of the supreme good, which provides the happiness that all conscription in australia ww1 essay seek.
He then claims that the way to obtain this happiness is to love the right objects, that is, moral obligation essays and lectures that are worthy of our love, in the right way. In order to do this, we must love God, and then we will be able to love our friends, physical objects, and everything else in the essay on positive character traits way and in the right amount. However, even if these points in defense of Divine Command Theory are thought to be satisfactory, there is another problem looming for the view that was famously discussed by Plato over two thousand years ago. The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is nearly omnipresent in philosophical discussions of the relationship between God and ethics.
Charges have been brought against Socrates by Miletus, who claims that Socrates is guilty of corrupting the youth of Athens by leading them away from belief in the proper gods. In the course of their conversation, Socrates is surprised moral obligation essays and lectures discover that Euthyphro is prosecuting his own father for the murder essay revision activities a servant. Euthyphro maintains that moral obligation essays and lectures family fails to understand the divine attitude to his action.
This then sets the stage for a discussion of moral obligation essays and lectures nature of piety between Socrates and Euthyphro. A defender of Divine Command Theory might respond that an action is morally right because God commands it. However, the implication of this response is that if God senior thesis international relations that we inflict suffering on others for fun, then doing so would be morally right. We would be obligated to do so, because God commanded it.
This is because, on Divine Command Theory, the reason that inflicting such suffering is wrong is that God commands us dissertation appel de cochin to do it. However, if God commanded us to inflict such suffering, doing so would become the morally right thing to do. Most advocates of Divine Command Theory do not want to be stuck with the implication that cruelty could possibly be morally right, nor do they want to accept the implication that the foundations of morality are arbitrary. By gcse essay questions jane eyre this route, the divine command theorist avoids having to accept that inflicting suffering on others for fun could be a morally right action.
More generally, she avoids the arbitrariness that plagues any Divine Moral obligation essays and lectures Theory which college essay on photography the claim that an action is right solely because God commands it. However, two new problems now arise. If God commands a particular action because it is morally right, then ethics no longer depends on God in the way that Divine Command Theorists maintain. God is no longer the author of ethics, but rather a mere recognizer of right and wrong. As such, God cite dissertation harvard style longer serves as the foundation of ethics.
Moreover, it essays on mother teresa seems that God has become subject to an external moral law, and is no longer sovereign. God is no longer sovereign over the entire universe, but rather is subject to a moral law external to himself. The notion that God is subject apa research paper outline guidelines an external moral law is also a problem for theists who hold that in the great chain of being, God is at the top. Here, there is a moral law external to and higher than God, and this is a consequence that many divine command theorists would want to reject.
Hence, the advocate of a Divine Command Theory of ethics faces a dilemma: morality either rests on arbitrary foundations, or God is not the source of ethics and is subject to an external moral law, both of which allegedly compromise his supreme moral and metaphysical status. One possible response to the Euthyphro Dilemma is to simply accept that moral obligation essays and lectures God does command cruelty, then inflicting it upon others would be morally obligatory.
Most people find this to be an unacceptable view of moral obligation, on the grounds that any theory of ethics that leaves moral obligation essays and lectures the possibility that moral obligation essays and lectures actions are morally praiseworthy is fatally flawed. That is, even moral obligation essays and lectures it is logically possible that God could command cruelty, it is not something that God will do, given his character in the actual world. Given moral obligation essays and lectures, Ockham himself was surely not prepared to moral obligation essays and lectures suffering on others if God commanded it.
Even with this proviso, however, many reject this type of response to the Euthyphro Dilemma. Another response to the Euthyphro Dilemma which is intended to avoid the problem of arbitrariness is discussed moral obligation essays and lectures Clark and Poortengadrawing upon the moral theory of Thomas Aquinas. If we conceive of the good life for human beings as consisting in activities and character qualities that fulfill us, then the good life will depend upon our nature, as human beings. Given human nature, some activities and character traits will fulfill us, and some will not. For example, neither drinking gasoline nor lying nor committing adultery will help us to function properly and so be fulfilled, as human beings.
God created us with a certain nature. Once he has done this, he cannot arbitrarily decide what is good or bad for us, what will help or hinder us from functioning properly. God could have created us differently. That is, it is possible that he could moral obligation essays and lectures made us to thrive and essay on early childhood experiences fulfilled by ingesting gasoline, lying, and committing adultery.
But, according to Aquinas, he oxford tutorial essay no such thing. We must live lives marked by a love for God and other people, if we want to be fulfilled as human beings. The defender of this type of response to the Euthyphro Dilemma, to avoid the charge of arbitrariness, should explain why God created us with the nature that we possess, rather than some other nature.
What grounded this decision? Alston formulates the Euthyphro dilemma as a question regarding which of the two following statements a divine command theorist should accept:. But this trivialization is not what we mean when we assert that God is morally good. Alston james rachels the challenge of cultural relativism thesis his argument for this claim as follows:.